Production is one of the most important game concepts in Civilization V. Producing stuff (a.k.a. "building," "training" or "constructing") means the ability of cities to generate gameplay units or stationary improvements such as buildings or Projects. In this sense, the term "production" is used to express how much a city is able to build each turn - be it constructing a building, or training a unit, or working on a particular project. Since all these are basic activities in the game, and start from its beginning, you can see that it's of the utmost importance to understand and develop production in your cities.
Note that every city has at least 1 Production point from its main tile, so you can always produce something in it. However, if you only rely on that lone point, your projects in this city will take forever. Make sure you expand your Production capabilities if you want your city to progress.
Production is measured in points, as all other stats in the game. Each city generates a certain amount of Production points (PP) per turn, depending on all the sources of Production it is using currently. A number of special bonuses may apply, either permanently, or related only to the city's current production project.
All things that can be built require a certain amount of Production points to accomplish. Once you start working on a project (building a building, training a unit, etc.) in a city, the total value of its Production plus any bonuses applicable are applied each turn towards completing it, and when the total amount is reached, the project is accomplished and you may start another one. Note that you can start and stop a project as many times as you want, then later restart it from the same point where you stopped, just as you can when researching technologies.
There are a number of special production bonuses in the game, which apply only for certain types of projects. For example, the Forge building provides a Production bonus when training land units in a city, but not for naval units, or for building construction. The Windmill, on the other hand, applies a bonus when constructing buildings, but not when training units. Keep track of your city's potential and use it to their maximum.
Production is applied to whatever the city is building at the start of that player's turn. If production is changed between turns using the circle with the item's picture on the right of the city's bar before their player's turn starts, production will be applied to the new item instead.
When you are producing a particular unit and you happen to research the technology necessary to access its next-generation equivalent, your city will automatically switch to the new unit in mid-production. All progress is transferred to the new unit (so you don't lose any PPs), but since higher-level units require more PPs in general, it will take more turns to finish the unit than you anticipated.
Sources of ProductionEdit
The most important source of Production is the land. Many terrain types and relief features (such as Hills) have mineral deposits, metals, stones, and other features that represent inherent production potential - this adds directly to the city production total when their tiles are worked. Improvements built on the land, such as Mines, increase the production potential (although, again, that potential is useless unless worked by the Citizens in that city). Later in the game, technological development is capable of increasing the production potential even more.
Terrains and Terrain Features with Production PotentialEdit
|Hills||2 (All hills besides snow hills provide this bonus naturally.)|
|Forests||1 (You can chop down the forest, but that will alter the tile's features!)|
Tile Improvements That Boost ProductionEdit
|Mine||+1, +2 with Chemistry|
|Lumber Mill||+1, +2 with Scientific Theory|
|Manufactory||+4, +5 with Chemistry, +10 by adopting all policies in the Freedom tree (vanilla only)|
Natural Resources That Boost ProductionEdit
Many resources add to the production potential of their tiles. The improvements that allow access to them may also contribute to increased Production. Try to access those first, as they will give you early benefits.
|Marble||+2 with Quarry|
Buildings That Provide ProductionEdit
The second major source of Production are buildings, such as a Factory - they provide facilities, tool shops, and later machines which all increase the abilities of a city to produce stuff. Besides providing additional PPs in your main city tile, buildings also boost total Production in a city by a percentage. And, some of them provide Engineer specialist slots, which are additional sources of Production (+2 PP per Engineer).
Also, certain buildings are capable of adding Production to tiles worked by this city. For example, the Lighthouse adds 1 PP to all sea resources worked by the city. Note that this benefit is only enjoyed if the relevant tile is worked, though.
|Ancient||Stone Works||+1||City must have an improved Template:Marble5 Marble or Template:Stone5 Stone nearby, city cannot be on plains|
|Ancient||Water Mill||+1||City must be built next to a river|
|Classical||Stable||+15% when building mounted units, +1 on each Template:Horse5 Horses, Template:Cattle5 Cattle, and Template:Sheep5 Sheep||City must have an improved Template:Horse5 Horses, Template:Cattle5 Cattle, or Template:Sheep5 Sheep nearby|
|Classical||Lighthouse||+1 on sea resources worked by this city||City must be on the coast|
|Medieval||Forge||+15% when building land units, +1 on improved Template:Iron5 Iron||City must have an improved Template:Iron5 Iron nearby|
|Medieval||Longhouse||+2, +1 from each worked forest||Iroquois unique building, replacing Workshop|
|Medieval||Harbor||+1 on sea resources worked by city||City must be on the coast|
|Renaissance||Seaport||+1 on sea resources worked by city||City must be on the coast|
|Renaissance||Windmill||+2, +10% when building buildings||City cannot be on hills|
|Renaissance||Coffee House||+2, +5%||Austrian unique building, replacing Windmill|
|Industrial||Factory||+4, +10%||Requires 1 Template:Coal5 Coal|
|Modern||Hydro Plant||+1 in all tiles beside rivers||Requires 1 Template:Aluminum5 Aluminum, city must be built next to a river|
|Modern||Nuclear Plant||+5, +15%||Requires 1 Template:Uranium5 Uranium, city cannot have a Solar Plant|
|Modern||Solar Plant||+5, +15%||City must be built on or next to desert, city cannot have a Nuclear Plant|
|Modern||Spaceship Factory||+50% when building spaceship parts||Requires 1 Template:Aluminum5 Aluminum|
Wonders That Provide ProductionEdit
|Ironworks||+8||Requires a Workshop in all cities|
|Temple of Artemis||+15% ranged unit production||Archery|
In addition to those, certain Natural wonders also have Production potential.
Engineer Specialists Edit
Each Engineer you assign to work in one of your special buildings (such as the Workshop) will add +2 Production to the city base.
Social Policies That Affect ProductionEdit
And finally, certain social policies affect production:
|Aristocracy||Tradition||none||none||+15% Production when building wonders|
|Republic||Liberty||none||none||+1 Production in every City and +5% Production in cities when constructing buildings|
|Collective Rule||Liberty||none||Republic||Settler production doubled|
|Warrior Code||Honor||none||none||+15% Production when training melee units|
|Communism||Order||Industrial||Socialism||+2 Production per City and +1 Production per Mine and Quarry|
|Total War||Autocracy||Industrial||Police State, Fascism||+25% Production when building Military Units|
|Merchant Navy||Commerce||Medieval||Naval Tradition||+3 Production in all coastal Cities|
Last, but not least, cutting down a forest gives the nearest city an instant boost of some PPs towards whatever it happens to be working on. You can use this strategically - for example, to boost the building of a Wonder.
After researching Guilds and Education, your cities gain the ability to convert Production into Gold, or Science. That means the city's production power (workshops, engineers, craftsmen, etc.) is loaned to either merchants or scientists to aid them in their activities, instead of producing buildings or units.
25% of the total Production potential of the city is then turned into respectively gold coins, or science points. For example, if a city has 40 PP potential, it will produce 10 Gold or Science per turn. The process is continuous - once assigned, the city will produce gold/science until you change the production.
Conversion is an alternate way of occupying your city with something, if you can't think of anything else useful you can build right then. Or, of course, you're desperate for some cash, or if your tech progress is turtle-speed.
Be aware that the extreme inefficiency of the conversion means that, in most cases, it is more worthwhile to spend your hammers on something else. Use the conversion if you think you are more or less guaranteed peace, you need to time a tech/purchase, or can shave a critical turn off a tech/purchase by doing so.
Managing Production is one of the most important parts of the game. Without production potential, a city will take forever to build even the most basic stuff (a Granary, for example). If you don't want this to happen, think ahead of time.
Next, you need to familiarize yourself with all game details described above, which affect Production. You can't expect a city to produce stuff fast if you haven't assigned any Citizens to work tiles with production potential. Of course, you can use the automatic manager, setting it to concentrate on Production, but that won't help much if the city doesn't have any sources of Production to start with. So, start planning for that from the very start - from choosing a place to settle your city.
When doing this, think - you'll need some ways to boost production, if you don't want your city to just be a territory-enhancer. Try to settle it in an area with at least one or two hills nearby (those are the most ready Production enhancers), or with resources which will add to Production. In the case of a coastal city, look for sea resources, and try to build a Harbor or Lighthouse and Seaport ASAP - they add Production potential to resources. Regardless, you won't be able to always make cities with lots of Production potential - sometimes getting access to other resources from the land is more important. In those cases, look to enhance Production by constructing the relevant buildings ASAP.
Now, you'll find out in the course of the game that you don't need all of your cities to be production-monsters. In the civilization, you build either buildings that will enhance your stats (both in this particular city and empire-wise), or you build units and armies. Since the first is related to individual city development, and the second - not (it doesn't matter at all (mostly) where exactly units are created, as long as they ARE created), you can develop the following strategy:
Select 2-3 of your cities and maximize their Production potential (assign Citizens in tiles with Production, construct the Production-enhancing buildings). One of them should be coastal, for shipbuilding. Build the special buildings for unit training (Barracks, Armory, Military Academy). Then train all your military or civilian units there - they'll get experience up-front, and they'll free the rest of your cities exclusively for constructing buildings for local enhancements.